The lightning-fast growth of the Internet and the invention of new media technology have provided us with considerable ease. The rapid spread of ideas has also provided a platform for damaging conversations. Recently, the public has become increasingly aware of hate speech and the harm it causes, making it a priority concern. Discrimination of all kinds, such as sexism, racism, homophobia and religious bigotry, is unfortunately still widespread in society today. The internet can cause harm in various ways, such as cyberbullying, verbal harassment, and the spreading of misinformation, among other things，The proliferation of hate speech and online harm has caused further harm to vulnerable populations, exposed people to potential privacy violations, spread false information, and raised questions about the potential of a few major players to gain more political power.Regardless of whether it is hateful language or online abuse, it can have serious psychological and even physical repercussions for those affected.
The Internet has brought a new era of liberty, providing the opportunity for anyone to voice their thoughts and beliefs without fear, thus inspiring boldness and ambition.at the same time， The Internet also needs legal and moral constraints. In the last few years, a great deal of inflammatory rhetoric has exacerbated racial tensions. The four tech giants of Facebook, Twitter, Microsoft, and Google, have reached a consensus with the European Union in which they guarantee to delete any content which promotes hate speech or terrorism within 24 hours of receiving a notification, while also honoring the principles of freedom of expression. so online platforms are in a continuous battle to strengthen the supervision of hate speech and online harm. This piece of writing will explore the repercussions of online hazards on vulnerable demographics, TikTok Platform supervision and governance measures, and proposals for tackling the issue.
- Impact of online harms on vulnerable groups.
The biggest advantage of the Internet is that it is open and equal, and it also provides a platform for vulnerable groups to express their opinions. This is a good thing, but now the Internet is constantly strengthening the protection of vulnerable groups, because online harm Its pervasiveness, pervasiveness, and destructiveness are doubly effective in the face of disadvantaged groups, from children and adolescents “their limitations of basic and digital literacy, cognitive ability, and mature decision-making ability, making them vulnerable online” (Witzleb & Paterson, 2020) From Charisse L Nixon’s research we can find that “Internet victimization and cyberbullying contribute to depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adolescents more than their gender and participation” (Nixon, 2014 ) For minors, they are immature in mind, have average self-discipline ability, and lack of ability to distinguish things. Facing the huge amount of information on the Internet, they are very easy to be tempted by bad information, resulting in damage to their physical and mental health. And confronting cyberbullying can also have devastating effects on teens and children, from sleep difficulties to stomachaches, headaches, and even mental health. So it’s important to take a proactive approach” (Nixon, 2014) and they usually choose to endure it on their own in the early stages. Some extremist organizations will use the Internet to recruit vulnerable groups, leading to radicalization and participation in extremist activities. Exposure to some inappropriate content will have a harmful impact on their mental health and well-being, which will extend to their future life and construct incorrect three views. Of course, in addition to adolescents and children, women, ethnic minorities and people with disabilities are also often affected by Online Harassment and Abuse. There will also be some hate speech, threats, and stalking here, and older people are often the target of being scammed and scammed, scamming is taking advantage of their age to make people let their guard down and have more trust, and being scammed is scamming The perpetrators take advantage of the degradation of various physical indicators of the elderly, carry out online fraud on the characteristics of low social contact and loneliness, and use the Internet to trick them into handing over money or personal information
Therefore, at the moment, we must take measures to protect vulnerable groups from the dangers of the Internet, and ensure that they are safe and reliable when using digital technology, so as to give them more protection and reduce the rate of victimization. Governments around the world have the responsibility to protect citizens from the Internet. Vulnerable to hate speech and online. Governments should develop comprehensive policies that address the issue from all angles. And regularly review and strengthen all policies that punish those who engage in hate speech and online harm.
3、TikTok Platform supervision and governance measures
The growing incidence of online harm and hate speech on the Internet has created a strong potential for social conflict, and many people will use this platform to incite hate speech. “Social media is increasingly becoming an important medium for political activism, enabling people to share information, connect at a distance, and organize political activities” (Carlson & Frazer, 2018). For example, in the outbreak of the new crown virus in 2020, there was a lot of hatred against people with immigrant backgrounds and Chinese Americans on the Internet. Anti-China speeches, this sentiment was only fermented on the Internet at the beginning and finally moved offline to implement some illegal measures to express hatred. Hate speech is a complicated issue and has also been the focus of attention in recent years. The perpetrators of hate speech are generally It is resentment and strong hostility towards a certain group of people. Most of these people have extreme thoughts and views. It can be seen that the supervision and governance of the platform is the key to reducing this similar situation. Many platforms have developed their own set of rules for this purpose： violations of relevant guidelines and rules will result in corresponding penalties. In a book called “Social Media Platforms Duty of Care – Regulating Online Hate Speech”, it is written that “the establishment of social guidelines is to ensure that the social media environment is user-friendly. A safe place to interact and express” (Outreach, 2020)
For this reason, TikTok has strengthened the review mechanism of the platform, which is mainly divided into three levels of step-by-step review:
The first level: After the machine audit is passed, the platform will be pushed to a few people
The second level: is the manual review, the higher the playback volume of the video, the stricter the review and the more times. From checking whether there are violations to quality, the rules and requirements inside are also divided into many small details and categories, and there are also third and fourth reviews
The third level: is report review, the contents and accounts of multiple reports will be judged a second time according to the review standards. If the reported video violates community regulations, the platform will directly delete it, and the creator can appeal. The content of the appeal should be an email of up to 500 words and include pictures and clear instructions
And TikTokk also has a strict division of specific review content from the video content, sound content to text field big data, use effective monitoring tools to detect prohibited content or suspicious user behavior
Regarding the security protection of teenagers on the Internet, on March 23, 2023, US time, TikTok CEO Shouzi Zhou also responded at the hearing. In 2020, TikTok launched a “family matching service”. That is, parents、guardians and teenage users are connected. Parents and guardians can also set screen time limits to determine how long teenagers use and some content settings. These features allow parents and guardians to formulate their children’s privacy and safety settings.
For privacy protection, it is different from some other platforms.Register on TikTok People do not need to provide their real names, TikTok will not ask about employment or relationship status, and it also has a built-in privacy design, so that users can confidently create and enjoy entertainment content, and users can also make extensive privacy settings, you can choose Whether your account is private or public to ensure privacy The TikTok platform will regularly review and update existing policies and procedures. Users can enjoy and create content safely and freely. For data security, TikTokk has also spent 1.5 billion to establish a data protection security company, namely: TikTok US data security company ( USNS), to ensure that the data will not be leaked and is absolutely safe
hate speech and online harm , in addition to hard-core governance measures, platforms， and websites also need to invest in moderation teams and tools, so as to quickly delete hate speech and online harm, and there should be strict screening for auditors. In 2021, TikTok spent about $1 billion on technology to detect potential breaches and suspicious accounts at scale to strengthen trust and security efforts，and train auditors
4、Solution: improve the content and education plan
The formation of online harm and hate speech is complex and multifaceted. We must always strengthen legal constraints and platform governance measures, but at the same time, we also need to ensure the existence of free speech. “Regulating online hate speech is a major challenge, but in During this period, it is also necessary to ensure that any supervision of social media platforms will not unduly damage free speech” (Outreach, 2020).
Therefore, 1. The platform needs to be more transparent to the public about the guidelines, deleted content, and handling measures, and allow multi-party platforms to conduct Supervision, providing data to relevant researchers and the public for supervision and review, online platforms must publicly explain the “actions and mean” they have taken to combat hateful content, and must say “confirmed results.”
2.Establish clear guidelines for the public to raise their awareness of prevention and self-management, and those online acceptable and unacceptable behaviors.
3.Supervise mutual compliance, and subtly make users aware of the concept of “freedom is self-discipline”.
4.Start the education mechanism to educate users on the potential harm that hate speech and other forms of online harm may cause, solve some people ideologically. and the impact online harm can have on others. Resources and online community activities can be provided to help users understand how to conduct positive online behaviors. This education should also go deep into schools so that teenagers and children can learn from an early age and establish good three views and behaviors.
5.Improve the complaint mechanism to protect user safety, For those who maliciously spread rumors and misuse identity information, will be punished by the platform and the law. Various network platforms need to formulate procedures, provide manpower and corresponding technical means, and ensure that the received reports can be processed efficiently, and at the same time, they must be guaranteed not to remove Content that has not been proven illegal. The online platform must also provide information to the authority that combats hate speech “as soon as possible”, and at the same time have special representatives answer questions from the judicial department. For this reason, the country should set up more relevant departments to review various platforms and corresponding punishment methods
The proliferation of online harassment and malicious speech present a formidable hurdle to preserving a secure and dependable virtual space. Having the freedom to express oneself without any restrictions is essential to the protection of human rights, and not having any limits can create an emptiness that cannot be filled. Creating a balance between free expression and hate speech, as well as preventing online harm, is a prolonged endeavor that necessitates clear limits. From a legal point of view, devising and executing international protocols for the protection of human rights and network security can more effectively and judiciously outline the distinctions between safeguarding freedom of speech and hate speech. Apart from making continual advancements in platform technology and regulatory guidelines, and reforming the legal framework, we must join forces to monitor each other and elevate public awareness and education. The law is the absolute minimum requirement. By demonstrating respect for others and promoting awareness of safety, we can be a positive example.
1、(PDF) privacy risks and harms for children and other vulnerable groups … (n.d.). Retrieved April 7, 2023, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/357689918_Privacy_risks_and_harms_for_children_and_other_vulnerable_groups_in_the_online_environment
2、Nixon, C. (2014). Current perspectives: The impact of cyberbullying on adolescent health. Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics, 143. https://doi.org/10.2147/ahmt.s36456
3、Carlson, B., & Frazer, R. (n.d.). Social Media Mob: Being Indigenous Online – Macquarie University. Retrieved April 7, 2023, from https://research-management.mq.edu.au/ws/portalfiles/portal/85013179
4、Research Outreach. (2022, November 22). Hate speech regulation on social media: An intractable contemporary challenge. Research Outreach. Retrieved April 7, 2023, from https://researchoutreach.org/articles/hate-speech-regulation-social-media-intractable-contemporary-challenge/