Say NO to So Much Hate Speech on Twitter

Picture 1 Hate speech definitions in different societal sectors (Perera et al., 2023)
Picture 2 Donald Trump’s Twitter account was suspended (Conger & Isaac, 2021)
Picture 3 Number changes of tweets containing hate speech from October 21 to October 28 (Benton et al., 2022)
Picture 4 Elon Musk, the new CEO of Twitter, describes himself as a “free speech absolutist” (Johansen, 2022)
Picture 5 Uniting against hate (United Nations, 2023)
Picture 6 Love and hate (Almeida, 2015)


Benton, B., Choi, J. A., Luo, Y., & Green, K. (2022). Hate speech spikes on Twitter after Elon Musk acquires the platform. School of Communication and Media, Montclair State University, 1-12.

Chetty, N., & Alathur, S. (2018). Hate speech review in the context of online social networks. Aggression and violent behavior40, 108-118.

Flew, T. (2021). Hate speech and online abuse. In Regulating platforms (pp. 91-96). Polity Press.

Matamoros-Fernández, A. (2017). Platformed racism: The mediation and circulation of an Australian race-based controversy on Twitter, Facebook and YouTube. Information, Communication & Society20(6), 930-946.

Perera, S., Meedin, N., Caldera, M., Perera, I., & Ahangama, S. (2023). A comparative study of the characteristics of hate speech propagators and their behaviours over Twitter social media platform. Heliyon, 9(8), 1-13.

Sinpeng, A., Martin, F. R., Gelber, K., & Shields, K. (2021). Facebook: Regulating hate speech in the Asia Pacific. Facebook Content Policy Research on Social Media Award: Regulating Hate Speech in the Asia Pacific, 1-47.

Woods, L. (2021). Obliging Platforms to Accept a Duty of Care. In M. Moore & D. Tambini (Eds.), Regulating big tech: Policy responses to digital dominance (pp. 93–109).

Yildirim, M. M., Nagler, J., Bonneau, R., & Tucker, J. A. (2023). Short of suspension: How suspension warnings can reduce hate speech on twitter. Perspectives on Politics21(2), 651-663.

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